Agricultural technology of compacted planting of vegetables
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This method of growing helps to efficiently use the land and get a good harvest of vegetables and herbs.
Great potato planting
In the spring, you want to plant as many plants as possible, but often the area allotted for the beds does not allow this. Therefore, many plants have to be planted with others.
In early May, I sow carrots and beets. I always place these beds next to each other, since then I wrap them up with one piece of covering material. The beds are located from north to south. I sow root crops along the ridge. Three rows of root crops are placed on one bed.
I sow radishes between the rows with root crops. The result is three rows of root crops and two rows of radishes on each bed. This radish is enough for us, we even treat our friends.
I water the beds often, I do not allow the soil to dry out, otherwise the radish will go into the trunk.
At the beginning of the growing season, carrots grow very slowly, so after harvesting the radish, I plant onion sets in its place on the greens. While the carrots are gaining strength, both radishes and green onions have time to grow between its rows. I do not plant anything on the beet ridge after the radish, since this culture very quickly builds up its green mass.
Once I planted dill between carrots and beets. It turned out that these plants do not like each other. The dill grew frail, and the carrots and beets did not want to grow.
In the spring, I plant spring garlic on the ridges with large-fruited garden strawberries in the center. The ridges are well filled with peat, compost and rotted manure. Garlic protects strawberries from pests. Large heads grow.
I heard this opinion: you cannot plant garlic on strawberries, as it scares away insects that pollinate the berry. I disagree with this statement. In addition to garlic, I scatter dill seeds on strawberry beds in the fall. Such a neighborhood is to the liking of both dill and strawberries. Dill grows in the wild much better than on a separate bed for it.
I plant leafy and head lettuce in mid-May with seedlings between peonies. Before large leaves appear on the peonies, the salad has time to ripen. I also plant parsley seedlings in mid-May between hybrid tea roses. The soil there is well filled with compost and rotted manure, so I feed the parsley only twice in early June with mullein infusion. In the same place, between hybrid tea roses, I plant asters seedlings.
Basil is a thermophilic culture; it does not want to grow in the beds. I plant its seedlings in boxes and keep them in a greenhouse on the paths. When I water the greenhouse, I take out the boxes and then put them back in place. Spicy ornamental peppers with small fruits also grow in crates. In July, in hot weather, it grows outside, and when it gets cool, it moves to the house on the windowsill.
These pumpkins grew on a compost heap
Many people advise to plant some other crops along the edge of the potato or between the plants. Most likely, such a person has never seen a potato grow, or his soil is "skinny", and the potato grows very frail and does not shade other plants. Our potatoes drive out powerful juicy tops, and after the next hurricane wind, it lays down, and nothing will grow next to it. It is necessary to place the ridge further away from the potato rows.
The only thing that grows between the potatoes is the beans. Several times they were planted between potato plants. But I noticed that the beans grow huge, they give a good harvest, and for some reason the potatoes don't like this neighborhood. Potato yield decreases and tubers become smaller. Therefore, I do not add anything to the potatoes.
Roses also do not remain without "neighbors". Along the rows with roses, I plant seedlings of low-growing marigolds. Everything looks very impressive, and roses are also good - marigolds scare away pests.
She planted cabbage of different ripening periods on the ridges in a checkerboard pattern. Early cabbage is removed by the beginning of August, and space is freed up for late varieties.
At the end of June, I dig out tulips. I put rotted manure and compost on the vacant space and plant dill on one bed, radish, daikon on others and plant kohlrabi cabbage seedlings (which grew up in a greenhouse). I cover everything with a covering material from pests (not dense, so that it is not hot under it), since I use pesticides only for flowers and apple trees.
After these ridges are free, I plant mustard in this place, which I then bury in the beds like green manure. I manage to plant mustard in this place twice, then embedding it in the soil. In late September - early October (depending on the weather) I plant tulip bulbs on these ridges. The land should not be empty, otherwise huge weeds will grow and have time to scatter seeds, and they deplete the soil, and the appearance of the ridges is unkempt.
Around young apple trees in a near-stem circle, I sow marigolds in spring, plant marigold seedlings. This landing looks beautiful. And there is no need to allocate a separate place for these flowers, and they protect from pests. In the fall, I bury the plant remains of these flowers under the apple trees. I don't bury all the bushes of marigolds, only one bush under one tree, since they kill both harmful and beneficial microorganisms in the soil. I chop the rest of the marigold bushes with a shovel, scatter them over the arable land in the place where the potatoes grew and plow them.
I do not plant edible plants under the apple trees, since apple trees require a large amount of organic and mineral fertilizers. It would look beautiful under the apple trees of nasturtium. But she grows fat from such a large amount of organic matter, increases the leaf mass to the detriment of flowering.
In mid-August, I harvest turnip onions. In the vacant space, I plant onion sets along the ridge in rows on greens. I plant dill and radish between the rows with onions. I cover it with a covering material. Onion greens grow quickly, while dill grows very slowly at this time. When the dill grows up, the onion will already be removed from the garden.
This garlic grew among strawberries
Our compost heap is not empty either. We have two compost heaps measuring 3x4 meters. The heaps are limited by pieces of unnecessary iron and slate, warmed up by the sun. One compost heap is filled, while in the other the process of decomposition of plant residues takes place. In order for plant residues to decompose faster, the pile must be constantly watered.
It does not stand idle - I cover it in spring with black film, and in the film I make holes - only five holes: along the edges of the pile and one in the center. Before planting the plants, I add a teaspoon of superphosphate, AVA Universal fertilizer and a little ash to the wells. I plant pumpkin seedlings in the holes and cover it with a covering material. I water the pumpkins twice a week. I completely remove the covering material when the plants begin to bloom.
Plants on such high ridges are warm. The sun heats up the heaps, and decaying plant residues heat them up. Once a season (at the beginning of the growing season) I feed pumpkins with Baikal-EM 1. This microbiological fertilizer activates the activity of beneficial soil microflora, since it contains bacteria beneficial to the soil. Consequently, the process of decay in the compost heap is faster.
Twice in early June I feed pumpkins with liquid mullein infusion. I don’t spend more fertilizing: everything that is needed for the growth and ripening of the crop, pumpkins are found in the compost heap. It is not necessary to water such beds - the black film does not let the weeds through. The pumpkin harvest is excellent even in cold summer. The largest pumpkin pulled 45 kg.
Dill, radishes, green onions, parsley, lettuce, garlic, basil, hot peppers, summer flowers, pumpkins - no matter how much space they take on separate beds! With this cultivation technology, precious space is saved, less effort is expended to grow the crop, and most importantly, the soil is working all the time. Of course, with such an intensive cultivation of crops, I annually bring rotted manure, compost and a little decomposed peat to the ridges.
Don't be afraid to bring in peat. Peat stays in the soil longer than other organic matter and makes it loose. It only works in conjunction with manure! To prevent the soil from being acidic, I add a little wood ash.
The land should not be empty. If you harvest from the garden and abandon it until spring, then it will overgrow with weeds. In the summer of last year, the soil of many gardeners on empty ridges dried out, there were not even worms in it, soil bacteria did not work. And sowing different crops on the beds does not deplete the soil, pests and diseases do not accumulate during crop rotation. The harvest of all crops was excellent.
Olga Rubtsova, gardener-florist
Photo by the author
↑ Spring, summer and autumn: what garden works are carried out
It is important to remember that there are no such calendars that indicate specific deadlines for the completion of work. We live on earth depending on climatic and weather conditions. It all depends on the region of residence, on the selected seed and seedlings. It is worth taking into account the biological characteristics of seeds and seedlings, the stage of their development. Much depends on the actions of the gardener or gardener.
Undoubtedly, for each season there is a general set of recommendations for seasonal work. These terms of gardening work can be shifted, adjusted to suit the personal situation.
↑ March works in the garden-vegetable garden
March is the month when mass planting of seeds begins. March is the time when the windows of apartment buildings are painted in a pink tint - this includes phytolamps to illuminate the seedlings.
MMany gardeners at this time plant seedlings on flower perennials and annuals. In March, they visit a summer cottage, cut off shrubs and trees. Pruning is performed when the air warms up to -3-5 degrees. Cut off branches, shoots before the start of sap flow. If you need to leave one-year-old shoots for cuttings, then they are left in the snow, and then used for grafting. In March, fruit and ornamental shrubs and trees are looked after: they are freed from the snow cover and shelter, the trunks and branches are whitened, and tied up.
↑ April work in the garden
When the snow melts in the garden and garden, they begin to engage in soil: it is dug up and deeply loosened in the beds and flower beds. In April, they begin to free the boles from the winter garter. Under trees and shrubs, the soil is leveled, which was raked in the fall. At the same time, the greenhouses and hotbeds are being put in order: they wash the glass, cover the frames with a new film or repair the old one, and remove the old garters inside the greenhouses.
In April, you can start planting fruit plants with open roots. Planting must be completed before the active movement of the sap in the tissues of the seedlings begins. Depending on the region, the planting period ends April 20-25. The best seedlings are young plants that quickly adapt to new conditions. In April, they are engaged in grass lawns: they scatter late snow, rake out and aerate the plants, if necessary, sow grass seeds, and apply top dressing.
In the first decade of April, the siderates remaining in the beds are closed up, roses, gooseberries, currants are cut, blackberry and raspberry bushes are raised. When the snow mass completely disappears, the perennial crops are fed with nitrogen for the first time.
In the photo there are several varieties of nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, the most optimal for pre-sowing soil cultivation on the site.
Important! The date of the first feeding is recorded in your calendar or notebook. And after three weeks, nitrogen fertilizers are applied again.
In the third decade of April, shrubs and trees are sprayed, protecting them from pests. Against aphids, drugs are used that are not afraid of rain: "Fas" or "Iskra". Copper preparations are used for scab and powdery mildew. At the end of April, old "fishing belts" are removed from the trees and new belts are erected. To do this, a section of the bark is tightly wrapped with a layer of cotton wool, cardboard or thick paper and coated with special glue from insects.
If the weather has not yet settled in the region at this time, then geotextiles or a film are prepared for the beds to cover early plantings from the wind and cold. This ensures the safety of the first greenery.
↑ May work in the garden
In May, they continue to protect the vegetable garden and orchard from pests. At this time, exclusively biological preparations are used. After all, May is the time of flowering and the chemistry will destroy the bees arriving for nectar. At this time, they do prophylaxis against caterpillars, spider mites, scab, whitefly, meadow moth.
In May, weeds appear, with which they begin to fight. Usually in the first decade of May, seedlings of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and eggplants are planted in greenhouses, greenhouses and in open ground (in warm regions). The most successful time when three conditions are met: the soil warms up to + 8-10 degrees (measure the temperature at the bottom of the hole), spring return frosts have passed, and the seedlings have grown.
In the second decade of May, cold-resistant annual flowers are planted in the soil. It's time to sow cabbage, radishes, beets and plant potatoes. To get a good harvest of root crops, they wait until the soil warms up to at least +9 degrees, and better - up to + 10-15 degrees. Potatoes have a short growing season (60 days), they can be planted in early June, they have time to grow.
↑ June work in the garden and in the garden
In June, they boldly plant heat-loving and capricious plants in the soil, cut off faded shrubs, set up supports for climbing crops. Thinning of root crops is performed (some crops need to be thinned up to four times per season).
- The first thinning is performed when the first or second true leaf is formed.
- Two to three weeks after the first thinning, the procedure is repeated, leaving 1.5-2 cm between the seedlings.
- After 15 days, the third thinning is carried out, leaving 5-8 cm between the plants.
- Two weeks later, the most grown roots are pulled out and used for food, giving room for development to others.
In the second decade of June, stepchildren and pinch tomatoes. The place for the top is calculated as follows - two leaves are passed up from the last brush and pinched.
Weeding is an important and not always pleasant June job. Weeds had already gained strength by this time and began to drown out the development of immature cultivated plants. Therefore, weeds are removed carefully. The pest control continues with the usual methods.
↑ July works in the garden-vegetable garden
July is the middle of summer and the peak of work. In July, the following agricultural techniques are carried out: watering and weeding of vegetable and flower beds, loosening the soil after watering, mulching. In many regions, this summer month is hot, and laying mulch helps to retain moisture, protects plants from overheating. Mulching also reduces the growth of weeds. Beds and flower beds are mulched with cut grass or pine bark. In July, lawns are regularly watered and mowed. So there will be enough material for mulching.
In July, daffodils are dug up (every 3-4 years when the leaves turn yellow), irises are divided and transplanted. At this time, the mustache is removed from the garden strawberries, vegetables and fruit crops are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. In July, the ripe first berries are harvested, early harvesting for the winter is done.
In the last decade of July, berry bushes are laying fruit buds for the future harvest. To support the plants, top dressing is carried out. The nutrient solution contains one part of potassium and one nitrogen and two parts of phosphorus.
↑ August work in the garden and in the garden
In August, harvesting and processing of the crop becomes important work.They make preparations, boil, freeze, pickle, ferment and dry the crops grown in the garden and in the garden! In August, garden strawberries are mowed, weeds are pulled out, the soil is loosened and fertilized with superphosphates. At the end of August, new strawberry seedlings are planted so that it can take root by winter.
In August, pinching is performed on annual raspberry shoots. Fruiting raspberry branches are cut to the ground. If not pruned, raspberries will grow until frost. And he will drop the leaves with the first frosts. Therefore, next year the raspberry bush will be exhausted and there will be no harvest. In the garden, in the last decade of August, fruit trees and shrubs are fed with potassium phosphate fertilizers. At this time, seedlings and holes are prepared for autumn planting.
↑ September gardening works
Shrubs and trees are planted in September. With the arrival of September, they stop watering the plants. At the same time, fruit crops are fed for the last time. Before the end of the growing season, they will have time to assimilate all the nutrients in plant tissues. If fed later, the feeding may not be absorbed or will provoke growth. As a result, the plant will not go away during hibernation and will die during the first frosts.
In September, trees and shrubs are cut, and crowns are also formed in ornamental crops.
In September, they are engaged in transplanting roses, buying and planting new varieties and species. Roses are sold as flowering bushes. Therefore, you can find out exactly what the bush will be in your flower garden or garden. Before winter frosts, roses will have time to adapt to a new place and will tolerate frosts well.
Bulbous crops are also planted in the first month of autumn. The landing pits are prepared in this way: 2 cm of coarse river sand is poured onto the bottom of the recess. The bulbs, depending on the size, are buried in the hole: small by 8-9 centimeters, large by 13-15 cm.
- Small-bulbous crops (for example, muscari) - in the first decade of September.
- Daffodils (the onions are buried up to 20 cm) - in mid-September.
- Tulips are planted at the end of September.
Dense plantings in the greenhouse
When forming dense plantings in a greenhouse, you need to select plants in such a way that they do not "argue" for water, food and sunlight. Their landing should be consistent, allowing to combine cultures in time and space.
Depending on the season, mixed plantings can be spring (for early greens and vegetables) and summer (when growing different crops at the same time). So, already at the beginning of spring, lettuce, spinach, cilantro, radish, Chinese cabbage, watercress can be sown in the greenhouse. Seedlings of tomatoes, cucumbers or peppers are usually planted in May. By this time, fresh herbs and early vegetables will have time to please you with their harvest.
Some of these crops can also be planted with the seedlings of the main crops. In particular, lettuce, radish and basil can be used to compact the tomato planting (as shown in the diagram). While young tomatoes are gaining strength, the greens with radishes will have time to ripen.
For summer plantings, when you have already removed the early vegetables and herbs, in their place you can plant beets, carrots, cabbage, bush asparagus beans, spicy herbs. The main thing is that they do not “take away” space from the main culture and be compatible with it.
Some unpretentious crops can be planted in the greenhouse throughout the season in any free place in it. These are parsley, lovage, sorrel, etc.
Dense planting of vegetables in the greenhouse and in the garden: schemes and secrets
Adding an article to a new collection
There is not enough space on your six hundred square meters to grow everything that you have planned? There is a reliable way to solve the problem - this is a compacted landing. It can be used not only in the greenhouse, but also in the garden. We share the secrets and layouts of cultures.
Compacted plantings should not be confused with thickened ones, which are obtained due to seedlings not thinned out in time. After all, the crops in such beds are carefully selected taking into account their needs and agricultural cultivation techniques. When planting, the possible influence of plants on each other is also taken into account so that they do not compete for food and a place in the sun.
Compacted beds in a vegetable garden
Similar beds can be created in open garden plots. In this way, you can influence the yield and taste of vegetables, as well as protect against diseases and harmful insects. In addition, labor costs for plant care will be minimal.
Summer cabbage will feel great next to celery, such a neighbor will protect it from cabbage whites. And it also has a late ripening period and will ripen after harvesting the cabbage.
It is useful to plant garlic and parsley in strawberry beds. These plants will save strawberries from slugs as well as snails.
All gardeners know that carrots and onions coexist well. The carrot smell is not tolerated by the onion fly, and the pungent onion aroma is harmful to the carrot fly.
Many flower and spice crops have the ability to repel pests. Such a smell is possessed by marigolds, lavender, coriander, sage, etc. These crops can be planted in aisles or in a circle of plantings, and the plants will be protected from harmful insects.
Lavender. Illustration for this article is used under a standard license © dachnyedela.ru
Some cultures not only protect against insect infestations, but also feed their "neighbor". This is how legumes supply the soil with nitrogen. Potatoes will be happy with this element, and it, in turn, protects legumes from their pests. Plant crops such as beans and beans next to the potato rows.
In areas with beets, carrots and parsley, you can place rows of lettuce or radish. Such "seals" serve as a guide in the rows, thanks to which they will be visible from afar and will help when weeding.
It is not very difficult to cultivate vegetable plants in compacted beds. The main thing is to figure out the timing of planting and harvesting, choose the right one for compatibility and use them as a means of protection.
These plantings will require an increased amount of fertilizer per square meter. m so that all crops have enough nutrition.
By the duration of the growing season
Sowing carrots, parsley, beets can be alternated with sowing lettuce. The main plants (root crops) after harvesting the salad remain on the site.
Late white cabbage can be combined with early cauliflower. The main culture and the sealant in this case are grown in seedlings.
Simultaneous cultivation of white cabbage or cauliflower (early or late, by seedling method) with onions, radishes or lettuce is possible.
It is recommended to combine carrots and parsley with onions for a turnip
According to heat requirements
Such plants include tomatoes with radishes, lettuce, spinach, turnips, or summer radishes.
The main crop - tomatoes - is grown in seedlings, since it has a longer growing season than compactors.
In this case, the combination of cucumber with radishes and onions on a feather is also acceptable.
Radishes are sown along the edges of the beds, cucumber seeds are sown later (at the time taken in a particular area) or seedlings are planted after the threat of frost has passed.
By plant height
Layering creates favorable conditions for plant growth due to more free placement of leaves and more complete use of solar energy.
Therefore, it is desirable that the plants of the main crop and the compactor have different heights.
The experience of combined and compacted plantings, or "Communal apartment in the garden"
When we bought the house, the thought of a vegetable garden did not even arise. What could be a vegetable garden on a few acres of land occupied by a house? In addition, there is a beautiful bazaar five minutes away, and on weekends a farmers' market is spread out right on our street. No, the vegetable garden is not for me.
But spring has come. Greens can be planted, I thought. Of course, you understand that I did not limit myself to one greens, broccoli, zucchini, radishes, and watermelon settled in the beds. In the first year, I planted it without any sense, just like that. There were many other worries about the improvement of the house and garden. The house divides the garden into two parts, we call them "front" and "back". Main, "back", approximately 10 x 12 meters. The first year we looked closely and studied what is growing in our country, and in the second year, having planned out the excess, formed flower beds and sowed the lawn.
part of the "back" garden
In the second year, I approached the garden with great interest. Two beds of about 5.5 meters per meter are located in the sunniest spot in our garden. In the corner.
a vegetable garden on an October evening
The wall of our house and the fence of our neighbors not only protect from drafts, but also provide additional heat. In summer, the sun is from morning until about five in the evening. Only in the afternoon it is blocked by a thuja for several hours.
in my opinion, conditions are not bad
Of course, the question immediately arose - what to plant? I wanted a lot. Therefore, I began to read about the "melange" garden, about the experience of combined and compacted plantings. It is very difficult to combine more than 20 cultures in such a space. But at the same time it is interesting.
communal apartment of my garden
We love zucchini and eat it all year round. In the first year, he pleased with the harvest. Therefore, in the second year, he settled at the edge of the garden, at the feet of the cucumbers. While it is growing, on the other hand, lettuce will have time to grow. Next, broccoli was planted, which we ate at the beginning of summer, and in its place I planted tomato seedlings, which lingered in pots. That's right, that I didn't throw it away, three bushes came in handy later. The main part of the tomatoes was planted with the letter G along the wall of the house and the fence. They were not sick at all, and there were a lot of them. We ate all summer and autumn.
the tomatoes liked the warmth of the wall
She planted two varieties - San Marzano and Kichkemeti jubilee.
And if in the first year the zucchini pleased with the harvest, then in the second it somehow not very much. Collected only a few pieces.
I had to pollinate myself. There were many ovaries that rotted
Initially, I did not plan to plant cucumbers, but suddenly I changed my mind. And she did the right thing. Surprisingly, they grew beautifully, and I love them incredibly!
I love them very much!
In addition to cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes and broccoli, lettuce and beets are planted in the first bed along the fence. And in the center are garlic, leeks, root and leaf celery. In the "legs" of tomatoes, marigolds and basil of two types felt good.
Part of the second bed is visible from the terrace, so zinnia and mustard were planted on it. She grew mustard for seeds, but she gladly added the leaves to the salad. I also managed to eat the peas planted in the spring. Then zinnia took its place, and on the sides stretched marjoram and basil bush.
In the center of this bed, the sunniest place is in the spring, so I planted there twice - in early spring and in the middle of summer. In the spring I planted on the sides a row of radishes alternating with arugula, then rows of kohlrabi alternating with head lettuce, and between these rows I also got spinach.
While the kohlrabi grows, everything is eaten and makes room for her. True, I did not have time to eat all the salad, and he began to stretch
it turns out that there can be a lot of salad, even when you eat it every day
I also did not manage to eat spinach, they eat it. Not me, but aphids. Look, I stuck all the roots
After the kohlrabi was eaten, at this place I planted another portion of kohlrabi, black radish, radish, lettuce and a couple of tomato seedling bushes, which were no longer seedlings at all and lived in large pots.
Basil, carrots, chives, leeks, beets were gaining strength behind them.
Only blue basil was not growing very actively. Maybe it was shaded by green basil, I don't know. Parsley with chives was also not pleased with the abundance of greens. Perhaps they are still cramped.
blue basil is a real decoration of the garden and flower garden
But we had enough for food. The goal was to eat fresh, not to make preparations or stock for the winter.
combined plantings fit into the concept of my garden
my communal flat
At the beginning of November, there was already little that remained in the beds. Leek, marjoram, black radish and root celery, which has successfully overwintered on it.
ate marjoram until November
The experience was interesting! I like it. My husband, who was initially skeptical about my garden venture, was surprised by the harvest and the taste of the vegetables. But we buy all the vegetables at the bazaar, and in comparison with the store ones, they are very tasty.
greens and kohlrabi for salad
beetroot borscht is a wonderful dish!
vegetables from your garden
In addition to the garden harvest, there is also a garden harvest. Raspberries, cherries and apricots. The plum has been planted, but it has not even bloomed yet.
I even collected raspberries in November
In 2016, there was a very large harvest of apricots. So this year it will be small. The former owners said that this tree is producing a good harvest in a year. The tree is already very old. The fruits are not the most beautiful, but delicious!
I tried the apricot from the tree for the first time only two years ago. And this tree grew in my garden.
I made jam from apricot. Something that does not fall out of the can if it is turned over. They call him the lekvar here.
One of the cherries tastes average between sweet cherries and sour cherries. The berries are large, and there are a lot of them. The tree is also old and large. We give part of the harvest to our neighbor. And then he feeds us with cherry soup. National Hungarian dish.
But back to the garden, to the combined and compacted plantings. Will I continue to plant like this? Definitely yes! The harvest turned out even though I did not feed my plantings with ANYTHING, I added superphosphate to the ground once in the fall and added ash when planting tomatoes. The earth is what came before us. No improvers, compost, peat, etc. etc. - NOTHING!
This year I am going to improve the soil a little - to add vermicompost and water it with a biological product with microorganisms. I will mulch all plantings with grass, from fertilizers - herbal, ash infusion and vermicompost infusion. The planting plan has already been drawn up, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, parsley, kohlrabi, celery are already sprouting. Hopefully this year's harvest will be even better.
Forward to the new harvest and the pleasure of growing it!